THEORY OF RELATIVITY ON EXISTENCE

CX1

 

  Abstract: In this paper, a point of view seeing about all matters against observers, a concept of the world of existence against observers, the concepts on separation and combination of the existent world, attestations one another of combination, and the principles of attestations are put forward. The collapse mechanism of wave function and the meaning of Schrodinger's equations are explained. Also in this paper the concept of information quantity is incorporated, the quantified degree of existence against observers are defined, and based upon which the wave-particle duality and uncertainty principles of quantum mechanics are reviewed, the expressions of new information equations are presented and quantified. The viewpoints proposed in this paper cover the fundamental viewpoints of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity on reviewing matters against observers and expand them to observe all matters. Furthermore the points of view in this paper can also be used to explain the experiments of quantum mechanics. The differences between macrocosmic existence and microcosmic existence are interpreted in this paper. The viewpoints of this paper urge the physics to advance towards information research and create information physics. Other points of view will be addressed in another article.

 

Keywords: Existence, Theory of Relativity, Certainty, Schrodinger's equations, Wave function, Quantum mechanics,  Information,  Macrocosm-microcosm

Since both subject and object are parts of the whole and cannot be divided, it is hard for us to separate the subjective from the objective absolutely. The existence we regard begins from the one against some observer. Different observers may have different existences, and for one observer, all his existences (matters related information influences him) compose his world of existence. Two different world of existence have different understandings of existence about the same matter. One matter, to some one observer, is not either existence or nonexistence, but maybe one state of existence between existence and nonexistence, we can define one existence (degree of existence) or certainty (degree of certainty) to determine the state of existence, for instance a number between 0 and 1, 0 represents nonexistence (without any information) and 1 existence (with full information). Two different worlds of existence can be combined (sufficient communications of information) into one world of existence, while one world of existence can also be divided (segmentation of information) into two worlds of existence. When combined into one world of existence (establishment of information communications), two worlds of existence will be attested one another, and re-attest the states of existence of matters in the world of existence. With the help of mutual attestations, different worlds of existence unify their identification for existent states of matters, and the process of such identification understands the same matter by following the law, i.e., the smaller degree of existence is subject to the larger degree of existence for the same matter. A combined world does not go against the identification of existence to any former world of existence. The collapse of the wave function is caused by the combination of worlds of existence.

With the help of the above viewpoints we analyze quantum mechanics and its related experiments. Taking wave-particle duality of microcosmic particle as an example, we, from the viewpoint of relativistic existence, understand the wave based upon our world of existence against other (different) worlds of existence (particles in the world of existence of microcosmic particle), on the other hand we regard the particle as the one when our world of existence and the world of existence of the particle combine into one world of existence. As a result, the wave function in Schrodinger's equations is our comprehension about the matters of other worlds of existence. The microcosmic particle do not completely exist in our world of existence, we consider it as wave. In contrast, we regard it as particle when the microcosmic particle does completely exist in our world of existence. The closer to our world of existence, the more the microcosmic particle is like particle, while the further from our world of existence, the more the microcosmic particle is like wave.

 

Pause to take a look at uncertainty, it tells us that the microcosmic particle is impossible to completely exist in our world of existence, either its position existence or momentum existence is closer to us, two of them are not available at the same time. So is the time uncertainty to energy. Wave is the representation of uncertainty, while the microcosmic particle is more like particle if more ascertained.

 

Now let’s look into Schrodinger's cat. The world in an enclosed box is a world of existence quite different from the external world. Inside the box there is an observer wearing a gas mask, while there is another observer outside the box. Two observers understand the state of the cat in different ways, to the outside observer the state of the cat is at lower degree of existence (lower certainty), as a result, the outside observer understand it a superpositioned state (wave) of the dead-alive cat. In contrast, the inside observer regard it a certain state since he owns the complete information. When two worlds of existence are combined, the wave function collapseswhich is the result of mutual attestation between two worlds of existence when they are combined.

Let’s scan the argument between Einstein and Bohr (Niels Herink David Bohr) (here referring to the EPR experiment), Bohr stands on our world of existence, while Einstein stands on the world of existence of the particle. Einstein lost undeserved, the fact is that they set forth the behaviors of objective matters from different points of view. The question is that we have no way to set our feet on the world of existence of microcosmic particle. Based upon our world of existence, Einstein is wave and Bohr is particle. Here let’s make an explanation dependent on EPR experiment, the conclusion of which, in general case (particle does not exist in our world of existence), is indeed declined to Bohr’s. However if the particle is kept in the same world of existence with us all the time in experiment, the author predicts the conclusion will be in favor of Einstein. In other words, any matter has dual characters, which is called Bohr-Einstein Duality by the author. Hopefully the physicists can do such an experiment.

 

Next let’s define degree of existence (degree of certainty) and use this definition to describe quantum mechanics. As to a matter, the observer through his observation maybe obtain the state space , including n states , corresponding to various states the probabilities are , and the probability distribution function , , then the information content (average) originally contained inside the matter, that is the information content not showing itself to the outside, i.e. the information entropy is:

 

Upon condition that there is no confusion, we use  to substitute (the same hereinafter), the total information content  and external information content (showing itself to the outside)  as well as the internal information content  of n states represent the relationship as follows:

 

When , (I=1,2,…,n), the Max. internal information content obtainable is equal to total information content, at the moment the external information content is 0, consequently we come at total information content as follows:

 

We can define the relative internal information content correspondent to total information content below:

and the relative external information content:

And we have:

 

Where  is defined as degree of existence or degree of certainty, which represents the Max. degree we can obtain about the states of a matter with n states, while  (degree of nonexistence or degree of uncertainty) shows the Max. degree we under no condition can comprehend. If  is applied to weigh the existence of matter states, the larger  is, the more this matter is like a particle and closer to the world of existence of the observer; while the smaller  is, the more this matter looks like a wave and further from the world of existence of the observer. The micro-particle, when combined with our world of existence, looks like particle; in contrast it is similar to wave when it is separated from our world of existence. This is the explanation about the wave-particle duality.

Now we use the degree of existence hereinabove to calculate the attestation process of the combination of two worlds of existence in Schrodinger's cat experiment.

 

The degree of existence about states of cat in internal world of existence is:

      

 

The degree of existence about states of cat in external world of existence is:

      

 

In accordance with above paragraphs, the state of existence of the world of existence after combination is the one with larger degree of existence of the world of existence before combination, i.e. the state of cat in internal world of existence. This clarifies some paradoxes.

 

The definition of degree of existence or certainty in a continuous state space is as follows:

 

The probability density distribution function of event e on the continuous state space [a, b] is, which has its Max. value at , thus the degree of nonexistence is defined as follows: 

 

The possible values are 0~∞.

 

The degree of existence is:

                                                                                                A1

 

The possible values are 0~∞, in which represents complete existence and 0 nonexistence.

 

We use this degree of existence to explain wave-particle duality. is applied for weighing the existence of states of matter, the more is, the more the matter is like a particle and closer to the world of existence of the observer; while the less is, the more the matter is like a wave and further from the world of existence of the observer. When combined with our world of existence, the micro-particle looks like a particle; while separated, the micro-particle is similar to a wave. This is the explanation for wave-particle duality on continuous state space.

 

As we transform as follows:

 

Since:

We get the density distribution function on :


       Thus,

 is tenable.

 

We call  and the similar density distribution, is dilation or contraction coefficient. We can find a similar density distribution  as standard, the degree of nonexistence it corresponds is , thus we get the degree of nonexistence of general similar density distribution:

                                                                                  A2

 

Here we use the conclusion hereinabove to see about the uncertainty principle of the quantum mechanics:

                                                                                             E1

 

Suppose different momentum and position density distributions for the same kind of matters are similar respectively and we have:

Where are constants, and are dilation coefficients.

 

Thus we have momentum and position degrees of nonexistence , we get:

Where  is constant.

 

As a result, we obtain momentum and position degrees of existence of , and we have:

                                                                                      F1

This is the expression of information equation of E1.

 

Same as the above, for:

                                                                                                    E2

We get momentum and time degrees of existence of  and constant , and:

                                                                                      F2

F2 is the expression for the information equation of E2.

 

Accordingly we express the wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle of the quantum mechanics in information equations and quantify them. The basic standpoint of observing problems based upon observers of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity is also contained in the viewpoints of this paper. The basic points of view of modern physics are all unified in this paper and extended to look into all problems in physics field by means of relativistic points of view.

 

The degree of existence discussed hereinabove is relative to the existence of observer, and the concept of information is mainly introduced in above paragraphs to weigh the existence, which can be regarded as the existence of states of matters, but the author is not willing to be confined by such existence (the existence of states of other things can also be weighed). As of now the existences we have known include time, space, matter, information and rules about them. The physics researches more existences apart from information, but less independent information. In accordance with the author, the physics has to advance towards research of information and create “Information Physics”. Only in such way the physics can be a complete subject.



1 e-mail: xzjxu@yahoo.com.cn